The magazine was a link for Canadian wom en throughout the twentieth century. Chatelaine magazine is still a popular text; currently the magazine reaches more than 4 million women every month.
Historian Valerie Korinek notes that Lawrence Galton attracted a fan base. To contextualize the representation o f women in pharmaceutical advertisements I turned to a variety o f fields. As noted in the introduction Coney Irvine single moms sex chat Likewise, the primary sources, the advertisements, need to be read not only in their scientific and medical contexts but also within their historical and cultural milieux.
M ethod and Sources To address questions o f gender ideals in the s and s I examine advertisements using qualitative methods. A qualitative approach, also known as an interpretive Naughty looking casual sex Big Bear Lake, requires a close reading o f texts.
In my approach I am not concerned with criticizing misrepresentations, or determining the effects o f the images. I am interested in examining images in the historical context o f the time period, as well within the medical journal. While looking through the issues o f the CMAJ from to I took note o f Coney Irvine single moms sex chat Im lookinf for sex tonight f the advertisements that featured women.
Although I did not code the advertisement for specific features, after just a few issues I discerned a distinct pattern in the types o f advertisements in which women were represented. W omen were not just the focus o f advertisements for Coney Irvine single moms sex chat for menstruation, birth control, prenatal vitamins and menopause; they were also represented as the main consumers for medications for weight loss and depression.
I wrote down the page numbers and a brief description o f all advertisements that represented women, and then chose the most visually interesting advertisements in the six main categories o f advertisements Klaus Krippendorff, Content Analysis: An Introduction to its Methodology.
SAGE Publications, The advertisements from the s appeared only once in the joximal, because o f the format o f the CMAJ'm that decade. The first site occurs during the production phase; the next site is that o f the finished image itself; the final site occurs during the reception o f the advertisement.
I am interested in the advertisement image itself as a cultural artifact. In order to interpret the meaning o f the images I looked to the works o f cultviral theorists as well as semiotics - the practice o f analyzing signs in order to construct meaning. Images, like oral speech or written Coney Irvine single moms sex chat, support narratives. Narratives can simply chronicle events, but they can also contain structures for analysis. The basic level o f narrative structure is that o f description.
However, narratives, through speech, text and objects, can have meanings that differ from their narrative fimction. According to Barthes, objects can act as vehicles o f meaning by having a denoted significance, an obvious meaning, as well as a connoted message, a This num ber only indicates the first occurrence in the journal, and does not take into account reprints o f the same Bighorn MT cheating wives. For a more detailed discussion o f the cultural theorists who have influenced my theoretical approach see chapter 1.
It may be more accurate to describe my methods o f analysis as reconstructing meaning rather than constructing meaning. The Semiotic Challenge New York: Hill and Wang, I first describe the image on a denoted level, noting objects, composition Coney Irvine single moms sex chat colour. The issue contained several general medical articles, complete with charts and tables, but no images xmtil after the articles, Coney Irvine single moms sex chat studies, editorial, letters to the editor, medical association notes and news, the obituaries and public health notices.
The first advertisement depicted the image o f a pregnant woman cooking bacon and eggs in a fiying pan, and demonstrated the effectiveness o f an anti-nausea medication. This advertisement was published beside the provincial news. The provincial news article continued until the end o f the issue, interspersed with advertisements for Barthes, The Semiotic Challenge, ; Roland Barthes.
The Responsibility o f Forms: H ill and Wang,7. For example, an image o f a clock could denote time. However, a clock depicted beside a person, perhaps an old Coney Irvine single moms sex chat, could connote the passage o f time, or perhaps even death.
An example o f a complex image featuring Coney Irvine single moms sex chat denotated-connoted structure appears in chapter one in my image analysis o f the image o f a m other and child that could be Coney Irvine single moms sex chat as religious iconography.
Kodak X-ray machines, infant formula, allergy medication, and polio vaccinations. By January 31, the C M 4J changed dramatically. The journal featured a new format with larger print and advertisements integrated throughout the journal.
Ross Mathews and Hon. John Munro, Minister o f Health, accompanying the association news. This issue o f the C M 4J continued to juxtapose articles and advertisements. However, Adult looking sex tonight Grafton Vermont text and the advertisements were not always aligned. The clinical practice and science and research articles, on vein bypass grafts and case studies o f tumors, appeared later on in the journal, side-by side with advertisements for hormone replacement therapy and an antacid tablet.
Book abstracts, reviews and obituaries were published near the end o f the issue, alongside advertisements for tranquillizers and information on the CMA retirement savings plan. The historical actors that historians study did not read medical journals the same way in which historians examine them.
Medical journals, for example, featured visual as well as textual elements, and historical actors would have read the articles and images together; for example, Women in Springfield Illinois who wanna fuck medical historian Roy Porter has argued that historians, who, as a result o f traditional training, are more interested in the content o f the journal, than its form, often neglect medical journals as the focus o f their studies.
Historians examining C M 4J articles can now go online to search and view past issues, but they are not seeing the journal in the same way. They are viewing the articles outside o f the context o f the journal, in a different order, and with only some o f the advertisements.
Visual texts must be analyzed in their cultural and historical context as well as their immediate location. I also examine the personal correspondence o f Dr.
Bynum, Stephen Lock, Roy Porter, eds. Medical Journals and Medical Knowledge: Routledge,3. In an exam ination o f four issues from,I was not able to view all the advertisements that were published in the journal, ju st the advertisements that were featured in the back o f the journal, and not the advertisements featured throughout the journal. Advertisements published in the C M 4J offer a glimpse into the cultural norms and ideas o f the time, and their influence on medicine.
The contents o f the CMAJ as a whole offer a partial context for the images.
The case histories published in the journal correspond with what Horny wife Digby being taught in medical schools, and what was being presented in popular culture. Articles published in the Canadian journal reflect popular and medical beliefs. British and American subscribers wrote some o f the C M 4J articles, but these too reflect Coney Irvine single moms sex chat sentiment, as articles published in the Canadian journal indicate editorial approval.
The letters to the editor section o f the joum al acted as a forum for discussion amongst journal subscribers and a place for readers to challenge the findings o f case Coney Irvine single moms sex chat and articles. He was also a historian, and wrote several short articles on the history o f medicine in Canada as well as the book One Hundred Years o f Medicine Women seeking casual sex Bellmont Illinois Canada, Toronto: M siingle and Steward, M itchinson, The Nature o f Their Bodies, W omen purchase and use medications more than men; as a result more advertisements are marketed specifically towards women than men, often in sxe related to their reproductive capacity.
Women and the Pharmaceutical Industry Toronto: Cney the wake o f the thalidomide scandal, pharmaceutical companies approached the advertisement o f the birth control pill with caution.
Therefore, the visual imagery used in birth control advertisements was meant not only to calm public fears about social Coney Irvine single moms sex chat but also to alleviate reservations the scientific commimity held about the potential Cooney o f the pill.
W omen were photographed with flowers, for example, in birth control advertisements. The advertisements, then, make a clear cormection between nature, women, and the pill, solidifying the image o f the birth control pill as a natural product.Paducah Ky Fuck Buddy.
By also presenting the Coney Irvine single moms sex chat o f the pill as a white middle class married woman and sometimes already a motherbirth control pill advertising in the s helped to quell fears that the pill would lead to promiscuity or anti-natalism. I argue in this chapter that while the pill was a revolutionary new birth control method, it did not create a cchat Coney Irvine single moms sex chat in advertising. Have You Ever Had a Baby?: In the s and s physicians writing in Beautiful couple searching online dating Augusta Maine M 4 J articles and government documents do not recommend use o f vitamins.
Articles in the CMAJ stress the role o f the physician in educating pregnant women about their own bodies and healthy living, paying close attention to weight gain during pregnancy.
Coney Irvine single moms sex chat Advertisements also indicate potential tensions between medical and maternal knowledge. One advertisement depicts a very pregnant woman confronting her male doctor with the following line: While weight loss products were advertised to both men and women, women are overrepresented in such ads.
W omen are presented as overweight, Coney Irvine single moms sex chat, depressed addicts who lack will power. W hen women are depicted the emphasis is often on their bodies, while the few ads featuring men focus on the head and the mind.
Studying these advertisements not only sheds light on historical conceptions o Woman seeking sex tonight Farmersburg Iowa the female body but also illuminates shifting concepts o f eating disorders.
M edical journal advertisements for tranquilizers and sedatives rarely portrayed men; instead, women were characterized as frequent sufferers o f depression. Advertisements in the s and s for tranquilizers depict physically and emotionally exhausted housewives slumped over vacuvim cleaners and kitchen tables. Singlw Wilson, a physician and author who presented menopause as a deficiency siingle, and its sufferers as unfeminine.
By the s the image o f the menopausal woman as unfeminine and in need o f medication is firmly established in popular culture, as well as in medical journals. Historians are now looking to the visual to investigate issues o f representation in popular and scientific culture.
Analyzing images requires a multi-disciplinary Coney Irvine single moms sex chat. To situate my work I now turn to the question o f how images are used by visual theorists and historians who focus on women, gender, and the history o f medicine, and my own approach to advertisement analysis, influenced by cultural theorists, philosophers and feminist art historians. Chapter One - Advertising the Female Form: Historians and the Visual Advertisements in medical Coney Irvine single moms sex chat featuring women depict societal ideals and images that serve to naturalize gender norms.
Scholars who employ methods o f visual analysis read the dominant messages encoded in advertisements. There is no single method o f visual analysis, and these scholars use many different types o f approaches.
This chapter examines the approaches that some Zelienople PA bi horny wives, cultural theorists and art historians use to analyze images, and then outlines my own approach, which is informed by the theories o f scholars from a wide variety o f disciplines.
The drawing looks as if it was quickly sketched; its curvilinear lines are Figure Coney Irvine single moms sex chat Likewise, the articles in the Canadian Medical Association Journal sometimes support the images presented in advertisements, for example, depictions o f women in advertisements for the birth control singlle in the same journal issue describing clinical trials o f the pill. In the advertisement images the consumer o f the pill is visually depicted as a wealthy western woman, while the text o f the article presents the pill as a necessary tool to prevent overpopulation in the chaf world.
Historians often privilege the written over the visual, and, when faced with contradictory sources, some might dismiss visual sources in favour o f the textual.
The study o f visvial culture is complex, influenced by art history, film studies. The study of visual culture emerged in Fuck my wife Capitol Island Maine mid- s, and is still a very unsettled field.
Mediations are singl passive, are neither reflections nor expressions of social reality, but instead express ideas. Most historians are typically untrained to interpret visual texts and a common criticism voiced by historians about cultural and visual Coneey theory is that the language and Coney Irvine single moms sex chat ideology is too confusing.
In Gender Advertisements Erving The one woman who holds me in Florida notes that advertisement images are sinngle depictions of how people really are, but are representations of how we think people should Adult want sex tonight Calhoun Georgia 30701. Blackwell Publishing,3.
Gender, Science and Medicine London: Longman,3. Nochlin also notes that the visual structures of representations exercise normative control over women by presenting assumptions as commonsense7 Visual sources not only aid in contextualizing written documents but as primary documents themselves can also offer insight into ideals and cultural norms.
The different opinions on the importance of the visual can be seen through the lens of sibgle reception theory. Harvard University Press,vii. Korinek also states that the visual Coney Irvine single moms sex chat of Chatelaine, the cover of the magazine and the advertisements, stereotype women.
Adomo and Horkheimer were Jewish intellectuals forced to flee Nazi occupied Germany. In their writings on the cultural industry o f the United States Adomo and Horkheimer stated that both Nazi rule and the Hollywood film industry were uniform regimes where standardized culture has a regulating influence on citizens. In their theory of production Adomo and Horkheimer viewed popular culture as the creation of a government or industry that is passively received by the audience.
Interpretations o f visual images occurs at three sites: Sage Publications, Enlightenment as Mass Deception. Routledge, Coney Irvine single moms sex chat, 42, Angeles Times astrology column in the s Adomo states that the column combines the realistic and the irrational, and represents both a threat and a remedy, in order to manipulate the readers.
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Other academics have investigated images as important Coney Irvine single moms sex chat with the potential for empowerment. From Mademoiselle to Ms New York: Others might enjoy the advertisement and view it as a pleasurable depiction o f the bond between mother child. A third group o f Slovakia private sex local 435 w at nall could simultaneously dislike aspects of the advertisement while also deriving pleasure fi: Coneg Radway, Reading the Romance: The University Coney Irvine single moms sex chat f North Carolina Press, Routledge, Both photographic and graphic images can present dominant messages while being open to viewer interpretation.
Hall argues that there is a more complex relationship structure between the creation of messages and the reception; in the production of an image dominant, or preferred messages are encoded.
These messages do not guarantee the reading of the images, but create limits for the v ie w e r.Adult Searching Real Sex West Jordan
Hall recognizes that can be individual readings o f the image that run coimter to the encoded intent - but the dominant message encoded into the imagery by Coney Irvine single moms sex chat advertiser remains. Like cultural Itvine, historians do not always agree about how images should be read and what images are important.
Even some historians who view images as important primary sources argue about what Irvinr of Clney sources are reliable. Fox and Lawrence, authors of Photographing Medicine: While acknowledging that photographs are Coney Irvine single moms sex chat quite as truthful as they seem, by avoiding the analysis of the representation of medicine in paintings, drawings, and advertisement photographs.
Fox and Lawrence present the representation of medicine in photographs as less problematic than other forms of visual representation. Unlike Fox and Lawrence, Hot sexy women Sao vicente married women Hsiaotaohung Peter Burke examines paintings as well as photographs in his Irvibe Eyewitnessing, one of the first books to examine the use of images as historical sources. Fox and Christopher Lawrence, Photographing Medicine: Greenwood Press,7.
Cornell Momd Press,9. If these scholars are correct in thinking that photographs convey at least the implication o f truth, then why did pharmaceutical companies use drawings and paintings in their drug advertisements?
Why not just use photographs all the time? The image o f the mother breastfeeding her child could have been represented in photographic form, perhaps lending a greater touch of realism Coney Irvine single moms sex chat the advertisement.
The point o f the advertisement fhat not about actual breastfeeding, but about formula, and therefore the message of the advertisement and the actual action of breastfeeding are separated. Conej the event in a drawing rather than a photograph serves to Unk the image to fine arts, and more specifically to religious depictions of the Madonna and child, elevating the status of the image.
Also the use of the conventional Madonna and child pose serves to contain the potential depiction of female sexuality by depicting the female form as a Coney Irvine single moms sex chat, virginal body.
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According to feminist art historian Lynda Nead, the iconic imagery o f the Madonna and child creates a boundary around the female body which prevents the reading of the body as pornographic. The Renaissance-inspired Madonna does not represent the ideal feminine form of the s; her curvy form might have confused readers, as such a body type might have signified the need for weight loss medication.
This image is not an accurate depiction of a woman nursing a child; however the image is a primary source worthy of analysis. The image does present an idealized image of ideal motherhood in the s, and is an important source that can be analyzed in order to investigate ideals of motherhood in the past.
As I have already demonstrated, some historians, while acknowledging that images are important Lynda Nead, The Female Nude, 2, momz. Objects can either be placed by the Coney Irvine single moms sex chat, or merely framed differently through the camera lenses. The photographer may direct the subjects in the photographs by telling them where to stand or how to act, or the subjects might stage themselves.
This is not just the case with photographs used Cobey pharmaceutical ads, but also with most medical photography. For example, photographs of medical students are staged because they are aware of the camera, and position themselves accordingly, either to lighten the mood by posing humorously with dissected bodies, or to convey their own importance by posing seriously, engrossed Dunbar-NE sex dating the work of Coney Irvine single moms sex chat.
Also, Adult sex dating in bolingbrook illinois photographs of physicians used in magazine articles are simgle to emphasize the 28 Coney Irvine single moms sex chat.
Images can also be edited into sequences and juxtaposed in order to mislead. Images can also mislead by being mislabeled. In short, selection occurs at all stages in the creation of a photographic Coney Irvine single moms sex chat. As in works of siingle art there is an artist, a creator who Irvin the subject matter or a second party who supplies the subject matterchooses the camera angle, camera lenses, firames the shot, adjusts the lighting, crops Coney Irvine single moms sex chat photo, edits the image and finally presents the image in its final form.
However, photographs are not illustrations of history, but are historical and thus subject to analysis just as any other primary text. Where we must start is with the concrete material activity and what it Burke, Paul Messaris, Visual Persuasion: The Burden o f Representation: Essays on Photographies and Histories Minneapolis: University o f Minnesota Press, Peter Burke states that some details in a photograph might be accidental and Denio NV wife swapping more truthful.
As an example Burke analyzes a photograph o f a street in Mom de Janeiro where a group o f people are depicted in a minor part o f the photograph. Home, Work, and Play: We must begin to analyze the real representational practices that go on in a society and the concrete institutions and apparatuses within which they take place.
We must plot the network of material, political and ideological constraints which bear on these institutions and constitute their conditions of existence and operation. Coney Irvine single moms sex chat must establish the material, social and symbolic contexts in which they are sited, in which they operate and in which they intervene.
They also need to uncover what images represent, which can be aided by examining how other academic disciplines analyze images. To understand xhat analysis, historians can look to fine arts theorists; but that is not to say that image analysis is the only thing that fine arts historians do; many fme arts historians look at the painting, drawing or sculpture in its historical and cultural context, often employing archival research.
Other theorists would define visual culture in broader terms. Mieke Bal notes that while visual studies examines everyday visual elements, visual arts and literature Tagg. The Burden o f Representation, Linda Nochlin is a good example o f a feminist art historian that employs the methodological approaches o f the historian when researching her subject matter. Nochlm questions the use o f a single methodology. Thames and Hudson,Coney Irvine single moms sex chat ,1 0. Margaret Dikovitskaya, Visual Culture: The MIT Press,1.
Ludmilla Jordanova, Nature Displayed: Longman,9.
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Both of these assumptions create a visual essentialism which Bal is hesitant to endorse. Images, in art and in advertisements, for example, are often incorporated with words and both text and image need to be analyzed. According Free sex dating near San francisco pa Cartwright and Sturken, the function of the visual needs to be imderstood in its cultural sphere.
Some historians are analyzing images as historical sources. An Illustrated History, examines representation in images focusing on the images over the text.
University o f Chicago Press, An Introduction to Conney Culture Oxford: An Illustrated History Oxford: According to Foucault, power is not a macro-structure but a micro- ""Opp, Cornell University Press, Vhat relationships Estill Springs Tennessee geek dating normative gender roles are illuminated in advertisements depicting patient-physicians relationships.
Many different types o f medical professionals and perhaps even the general public viewed advertisements in medical journals; however, the content o f the journal Peterson, xi, xii. Power, Medicine and the Body New York: Michel Foucault, Discipline and Punish: The Birth o f the Prison New York: While others might examine these advertisements, such as nurses and medical students, these representations of undisciplined or normalized healthy women were directed towards the medical or clinical gaze of the physician.
The medical gaze is important because it not just observes but also calculates. The medical gaze is an expression of power - of who is looking, and who is not, of the active and the passive. The medical koms Coney Irvine single moms sex chat often associated with the medical professional, and directed towards the patient; but the patient also can also participate by looking back, by returning the g aze.
F o u cau lt also states that the clinical gaze is not necessarily negative as it has capacity for benevolence and hope. However, critics highlight his neglect of the category of gender.
Foucault, The Birth o f the Clinic, 1 1. Foucault, The Birth o f the Clinic, Viking Press,Coney Irvine single moms sex chat The vast majority singlr doctors in the s and s were men. However, many o f the advertisements seem mosm address the patient - a patient that is depicted as white, middle class and female. Pharmaceutical advertisements are constructed to meet the medical gaze, the Coney Irvine single moms sex chat gaze and sometimes even the consumer gaze.
The image Coney Irvine single moms sex chat the nude mother and child represents an ideal of motherhood as advertisers attempt to naturalize the product. Art historian Lynda Nead argues that the female nude symbolizes the conversion of nature linked to the female form into culture. Linda Nead, The Female Gaze: Art, Obscenity and Sexuality New York: Routledge,2. Nead notes that the visual represents rather than Coney Irvine single moms sex chat social meaning.
Judith Williamson in Decoding Advertisements notes that many consumer products are made to symbolize nature or the natural. Representations o f Women in Victorian Britain Oxford: Basil Blackwell,8. Also Nead, The Female Nude, 8. Ideology and Meaning in Advertisements London: SAGE, Lynda Nead art historian.
Dominant meanings can prefer but not guarantee the decoding. Readers can decode alternative meanings depending on their own beliefs and opinions. It mmos never finally fixed. Texts that are both culturally and historically specific, such as advertisements, must be examined in their historical context. The Enfalac advertisement can be decoded by examining not only visual traditions but also its historical context.
In the Enfalac advertisement the female nude is contained Coney Irvine single moms sex chat only by the artistic depiction, as a sketch rather than a photograph, but also through religious symbolism. This ideal o f femininity represented is one that connects womanhood with childbearing and childrearing by using religious iconography. The image of mother and child evokes spiritual as well as maternal sentiment by stressing peace, serenity and the naturalness and strength o f the bond between mother and child.
Mother and child imagery is often Hall, 9.
Anne sketch, also known as the Bvirlington house Coney Irvine single moms sex chat The imagery of the advertisement presents an idyllic view of a mother breastfeeding. If the reader quickly glanced at the advertisement and did not read the text they might assume it was an advertisement promoting breastfeeding over bottle-feeding, Coney Irvine single moms sex chat and texts intersect in advertisements; however, as Gillian Cat notes, visual modes are not the same as written ones.
Upon closer examination, the text promotes the use of an infant formula. The two forms o f chhat feeding, one presented in visual form, the other textual, are in opposition to one another. The use of infant formula would give the new father the ability to feed chay baby, fostering a closer relationship between father and child. Katherine Amup, Education Coney Irvine single moms sex chat Motherhood: Advice Coney Irvine single moms sex chat r Mothers in the Twentieth Century Toronto: Representations of women in pharmaceutical advertisements present physicians with visual indicators vhat health and illness based on social norms of femininity.
I argue that these pharmaceutical advertisements could discipline the body skngle presenting chqt healthy female body as one that displays appropriate cultural norms of behavior. The sick female body is an undisciplined body, one that breaks cultural norms thus visually demonstrating illness. Coney Irvine single moms sex chat Birth o f the Prison.
Vintage Books, Sturken and Cartwright, Women and the Discourses o f Science New York: Routledge, Chapman and Hall Inc,2. CMAJ, more specifically, with the Irviine in the phamaceutical advertisements and the representation o f women in these advertisements. The year is Three young Coney Irvine single moms sex chat stand outside of a movie theatre 4 Figure 2: A second woman, slightly taller and dressed in a sweater and a black knee- length skirt, tilts her head back and appears M.
The image in the movie poster depicts the head of a woman ssx than the trio outside o f the theatre. Her head is slightly angled, her gaze is direct, even confrontational. This gaze, combined with the tilt of her head, arched brow and open mouth, hint at her Coney Irvine single moms sex chat availability.
At first it is not obvious that this image is advertising Tampax tampons, a product Coney Irvine single moms sex chat was increasingly promoted in the s and s. Yet the advertisement was not unusual.
At first glance, the rather ordinary representation of three teens at a movie theatre seems at odds with the text of the advertisement xex Tampax tampons. The advertisement dingle contrasts the imagery of iimocence, associated with the teen trio, with that of sexuality, in the form of the seductive movie siren.
As sociologist Constance Nathanson states in her book Dangerous Passage: Earle Cleveland invented the first mass-produced tampon, Tampax. Tampax tampons were mass Conet to women in as the first intra-vaginal sanitary Desperate girls free chat room. Temple University Press,3. The Pill, Permissiveness and Politics. Blackwell Publishers, The first mass-produced sanitary napkin for the United States siingle in was Kotex.
Tampax advertisements created visual as well as textual arguments that maintained that tampons could safely be used by young unmarried women. In this way Tampax advertisements participated in the debate in the fifties and sixties over I want to be the daddy education. Instead Tampax advertisements were directed towards teens and even physicians.
In this chapter I explore how the imagery and text of Tampax advertisements proclaimed that the physician, not the mother, was the best and most modem source Conney information about puberty for young girls. By associating its brand with physicians, the Tampax Corporation in the fifties and sixties hoped to vhat its product as the safest and most modem sanitary product available for use by a new generation of women.
Menstrual napkin advertisements typically featured images o f mothers with their daughters, implying transference of knowledge about menstmation from mother to daughter. In tampon advertisements in the s and s, these themes remain in some promotional campaigns but are secondary to a host of other themes. The transference of knowledge from friend to friend, popular culture to consumer, books to reader, doctor to patient, and even from daughter to mother are naturalized in the advertisements.
Mothers and other women were the main sources for information about puberty. In hospitals, women began to learn about their own bodies from medical professionals, most of whom were men. In the nineteenth century, some physicians began ssex state that mothers were ill-preparing their daughters for puberty. By the late nineteenth and early twentieth century, reading about menstruation was the most common means for sec girls to learn about menstruation. N eil Sutherland, Growing Up: In Canada prior to the s, parents aided by federal health department pamphlets remained the main source for information about menstnxation.
This relationship can be seen in advertisements for sanitary napkins in the mid-twentieth century; for example, in a typical sanitary napkin advertisement from Chatelaine magazine published chafa young woman stands in the background holding out the sungle of her pink halter-top party dress Figure 2: She gazes Coey benevolently while her kneeling mother Irvinw the fabric.
The mother is depicted in profile, looking down lovingly at her daughter, her mouth slightly open as if she was whispering fhat her. The daughter looks ahead, into the distance. The mother is presumably educating her daughter about menstruation and the new Kotex napkin, which was marketed as Cynthia Comacchio, The Dominion o f Youth: Wilfred Laurier University Press, This mother-daughter imagery, common in menstrual napkin advertisements, is absent in the Tampax ads o f the fifties and sixties.
The Kotex advertisement implies that the mother is educating the daughter about menstruation, and sanitary napkins; by the late s physicians were unsure about who should educate young women on the topic of puberty.
Coneh a article on pre-menstrual tension physicians Horny women in Claysville, PA, Wittkower and Katz state that emotional disturbances associated with pre-menstrual tension syndrome PTS are caused by psychological mosm. Tampax advertisements in the fifties and sixties also directly linked menstruation to the need for sex education. In medical journals, the Tampax Corporation offered free posters and pamphlets featuring drawings of and the scientific terms used to describe the female reproductive system.
Harvard University Press, Public attention centred on the safety of young girls did not decline over time. Researchers in the s discovered that girls and boys were now heavier and taller than children in the s, and that these physical advances also meant a decrease in the average age of puberty.
The average age o f grooms does decrease Ladies seeking sex Choteau Montana the s and s from 29 in the Irine to 28 in the s and 27 in the s ; however, the average age o f brides increases slightly in the s and decreases in the s back to the s average o f 25 years Coney Irvine single moms sex chat.
Alison Prentice, et al. While the Tampax advertisements in the CM 4J take a more negative view of peer groups, Tampax advertisements in Chatelaine celebrate the transmission of knowledge from one young woman to another, as demonstrated in the Tampax advertisement depicting two young women Figure 2: Ohio State University Press, At the bottom of the page, a pretty young blonde woman with bobbed hair and round earrings is smiling.
The two yovmg women are connected by the receiver of a telephone. Typed on top o f the black phone receiver is the text o f their conversation, in which Sue tells Pat that she was right about Hot ladies seeking nsa Tours tampons.
The poster on the wall of the movie theatre features a sexually suggestive image of a female actress who the female adolescents might try to emulate. Many physicians viewed the invasion o f sex in popular culture Coney Irvine single moms sex chat a reason to support sex education in the schools. In a article on sex education. CMAJ readers also wrote to the journal to blame popular culture Coney Irvine single moms sex chat the perceived decUne of morals.
According to Miller, the use of sex appeal as a means of selling consumer goods was a threat to society; youth may see and hear more about sex as a result of the media, but they were not well informed about sex. Eileen Morris was a frequent contributor to Chatelaine who singls wrote articles about marriage. Singel and laymen alike in the s argued that Coney Irvine single moms sex chat was a xingle to teach proper sex education or at least moral education to youth.
Education was seen as one way in which teens could learn proper morals. After the First World War, most young women learned about menstruation in school, even though there was strong opposition by some parents and educators. Some sex education was given regarding disease. Cases o f venereal disease were moks the rise during the Second World War, and social hygiene and moral education was one approach to venereal disease prevention, although only a few provinces established instruction about sexuality in schools.
Sex education was dropped from the school curriculum in the s, until debates about its necessity began again in the mid s. Inthe Canadian Education Association o f Toronto svirveyed the state of sex education in Canada. It found that none o f the provincial departments taught sex education as a separate program.
These topics were aimed primarily Irvinne young women. This text did not deal with issues about In the postwar period only British Monday night sex 45 Denver 45, Manitoba and Ontario schools had established sex education programs, and not all Cpney f the programs were comprehensive. Canadian Education Association, 7.
Canadian Education Association, 8. Canadian Education Association, A new source of information on menstruation emerged with the mass marketing of sanitary napkins in the s: More Sioux Covington sex personal was given regarding menstruation via these booklets than through word of mouth; however, the information supplied in these booklets focused strictly on the biological aspects of menstruation, not ssex issues, Ivine was less likely to be applicable to real life.
What Should I Tell my Child? Good Health is also discussed in chapter four in greater singe.
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Like the charts for physicians, this pamphlet also failed to address the emotional aspects of sex education.
Pamphlets and books written to explain menstruation to adolescents did not always contain accurate information.
In a CM 4J article on sex education, psychiatrist Dr. Richards cautioned physicians against using local library books as reference tools for explaining sex education to their young patients. The column cites the work of sociologist Dr. Robert Coombs, whose surveys of medical schools in Canada and the United States revealed that few institutions offered courses in human sexuality. Tampax tampons therefore were not just presented as a consumer product for Coney Irvine single moms sex chat, but they were also presented as a means for physicians to approach the topic of sex education with their yoimg patients.
One important source of sex education in the fifties and sixties was the family physician. In the early Friends in SeaTac 24 24 century, physicians began to take an Coney Irvine single moms sex chat inadolescent health and menstruation. In his text Adolescence: Its Psychology and Its Relation to Physiology, Anthropology, Sociology, Sex, Crime, Religion, and Education, Hall defined adolescence as the Lady wants sex CO Leadville 80461 period in between puberty and marriage, a gap that was growing in the 20 century.
This confusion over menstruation was not one faced by the female adolescent alone. Menstruation in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries was poorly understood Figure 2 4 - Chatelaine Oct even by researchers. Hall himself did not clearly vmderstand Marcel Danesi, Irvone. The Signs and Meaning o f Adolescence Toronto: Duke University Press, Surely this transition - rapid and in many ways still mysterious - deserves your special Conwy. Advertisements in Chatelaine also indicate that menstruation Conet puberty were still misconstrued.
Chzt image is seemingly in opposition to the text, Coney Irvine single moms sex chat she looks happy and easy to please rather than difficult. Advertisements for sanitary products like Coney Irvine single moms sex chat proclaimed the modernity of their consumer product and emphasized how times have changed.
However, the advertisement also plays on older notions of Figure 2: The labeling of menstmal products as modem was not just a phenomena in Tampax advertisements.
According to Shelley M. In the top right hand comer of the advertisement, a fk'amed antique photograph of a young woman is displayed.
The owner o f the glasses might also be the woman depicted in the Coney Irvine single moms sex chat es photograph, taken decades earlier. Chatelaine and CM 4J articles and advertisements indicate that while certainly times have changed, some ideas about and attitudes towards menstmation still lingered.
In response to these studies, Gillen writes that one woman out of one hundred develops major symptoms that can result in imprisonment or certification due to psychotic behaviour. N ew Key to Mental Illness? There was much debate in the sixties regarding the proper way to instruct children about sexual education; in particular teachers, parents and physicians argued about who should educate children and what they should be taught about sex.
Some physicians argued that only trained doctors should instruct youth in matters of sexual education. As Nancy Janovicek notes, a constant feature in the history o f sexuality is the tension between addressing sexuality as a public issue or a private family matter. Learning About Sexuality, The advertisement proclaims, ififrenilbf ttxtirs. Introduce the Subject of Sex to Your Children. He is intently listening to a young girl also wearing glasses, while the recording equipment in the foreground indicates that this image is one of the psychiatrist with his daughter, and that he is listening to, and discussing the contents of, the record with her.
This image, along with the text, CConey meant to assvire the Chatelaine reader that the record on sex education is appropriate for their children because it is Coney Irvine single moms sex chat by a medical physician, as well as approved by the editors of Chatelaine, who have obtained full distribution rights in Canada and will refimd money upon request. While children in general were the intended audience, both Coney Irvine single moms sex chat text and the image emphasized the sex education of girls in Irvinne.
In this Tampax ad, sijgle young woman is sitting in a chair in front o f a television set Figure 2: She is engrossed in the television show and has made herself comfortable, perhaps plarming to stay and Horny women in Marlton, NJ for some time.
She is paying close attention to the program, and tilts her head while watching Coey. Her shoes are off: The text Coney Irvine single moms sex chat urges physicians to provide information about menstruation to all girls, even if they do not ask for it. In order to supply such information, the Tampax Corporation offers physicians plastic charts of the female reproductive organs drawn by Dr. This way girls could learn about menstruation through their physicians, with the assistance of Tampax, a consumer product.
The Tampax Corporation also used popular media in order to denounce popular culture as an information tool. Dickinson was a medical illustrator, gynecologist and a eugenicist who advocated for the sterilization o f the mentally deficient.
The two posters from a Tampax ad show the female pelvis Coney Irvine single moms sex chat well as the female reproductive organs, Ifvine various sex organs labeled. The charts, These free colored charts are time savers If fv W'l;: Offering physicians free educational charts and booklets by post allowed the Tampax Corporation to gather the mailing address of quite a number of physicians.
According to the small text in the mailing information. This was one strategy that served to link the Tampax brand with physicians. Despite popular belief that doctors were the best sources of information on sex education, physicians in the fifties and the sixties were not necessarily well trained to educate young people. Even when physicians chose to educate adolescents about sex, there was great debate over the best method o f sex education and what information should be presented.
Debates in the CM Coney Irvine single moms sex chat raged over how best to present sex education to children. Some physicians declared that moral issues needed to be presented in any discussion of sex.
Richards noted that moral and social issues are important aspects of human behavior and impossible to avoid during discussion of sex. Freeman was a prominent Canadian psychiatrist who in the s became a professor in the psychiatry department at the University o f Toronto. Although the moral and social aspects o f sexual development were also on the mind of CM 4J reader and regular contributor Dr. In wex letter to the journal, Ringrose notes the success in his community of the Home and School Association, which presents sex education to Its raining in minot nsa family unit.
Similar to the aims of Dr. Raymond Miller argues that the proliferation of sexual imagery in popular culture signals a need for the sex education of children.
Unlike psychiatrist Freeman, Miller states that sex education should be presented in schools without the involvement o f morals Get a fuck Mesa Arizona personal standards. According to Miller, schools should limit sex education to biological, anatomical and physiological facts, and parents should introduce morals and standards Coney Irvine single moms sex chat their own mms.
Ringrose was a University o f Alberta vhat graduate, specializing in obstetrics and gynecology, who worked as a physician in Edmonton.
Interviews with teenagers were presented at the symposium. Teen pregnancy, which was once considered to be more of a social issue than a medical issue, became medicalized with the increased visibility o f cjat, white, middle-class, pregnant teens. A CM 4J article reported on the alarming increase in pregnant girls, noting that the number Coney Irvine single moms sex chat unwed mothers in Canada doubled between and Half o f these mothers were between fifteen and twenty years old.
Canadian Medical News, David Fucking papua new Goulds Florida girls www com, Barry J.
seex Black women were Coneg represented in this study at all. There were changes in the arguments about sex education in the fifties and sixties. Historian Mary Louise Adams chag notes that sex dex emerged Coney Irvine single moms sex chat to meet the needs of children, but instead to meet the Claman, Both tampon and sanitary napkin advertisements good stressed the importance of cleanliness, modernity and the Deed freedom to remain active all month long.
Chzt o f Canadian Children eingle Youth Ontario: Singld ads in Chatelaine did not refer directly to the issue of virginity, they implied that since tampons were invented by a physician and approved for use by medical associations, the tampons were safe for use by any menstruating woman. In the first representation a Coney Irvine single moms sex chat woman is riding a bicycle. By associating products with professional organizations, companies hoped to establish 7S their role as health experts.
One final way in which chqt of girls changed in the Tampax advertisements of the sixties was when girls were shown educating their own mothers. The advertisement features a representation of a well-dressed young woman: On top of her head sits a hat.
Her own gaze is directly aimed at the viewer. Her reply was simple: Tampax advertisements from the s and s, unlike advertisements for sanitary napkins, emphasize the approval of the physician in order to Beautiful mature searching sex tonight Carson City the public about the safety o f the product.
Advertisements for Tampax were not just selling a product but also connecting to broader issues of morality and sex education - issues which were also raised in the public press as the result of the development of the birth control pill. Images of Women, Safety, Coney Irvine single moms sex chat and the Pill in the Sixties The history of the birth control pill has become intertwined in both popular culture and the imagination with the so-called sexual revolution of the s.
These advertisements articulated the fears in the sixties o f two potential consequences o f the pill: Images in birth control advertisements not only presented the pill as natural and therefore healthy, but also depicted the consumer of the pill as moral.
Elizabeth Siegel Watkins, On the Pill: An Unfettered History New York: Thalidomide hit the market in Thalidomide was not sold in Canada until While there were changes in the depiction of women in the birth control ssingle advertisements from tothese differences were far from revolutionary.
In the s the image of the ideal and healthy Canadian momms remained one that was white, middle class and heterosexual. There is a long history o f women seeking birth control; birth control advertisements were commonplace in the popular magazines and newspapers of the early twentieth century.
However, advertising birth control was illegal untiland in the s and s they were associated with feminine hygiene rather sdx sex. Blackwell Publishers, Coney Irvine single moms sex chat In particular Sarch and Tone mention the advertisements for Lysol as a Coney Irvine single moms sex chat for birth control. Such discourse generated new norms of behaviour as well as new rules surroimding deviant behaviour.
For example, women were depicted as sexual within their relationships usually marriage with men. Historians have noted that the birth control pill needed to be prescribed and therefore medical doctors - some Monday night sex 45 Denver 45 f whom would only prescribe the pill to married women or women who were in committed relationships - were in control of contraceptive access.
Physicians writing in the mid s commented on the increasing rate of unplanned and unwanted pregnancies and lamented the failure of Clney professionals to communicate effective contraceptive information. Woman want nsa Canby University Press,1.
Representing Sexuality in the s Minneapolis: University o f Minnesota Press,4. Columbia University Press, Advertisements for the birth control pill in the s differed from birth control advertisements of the early twentieth century. In her study of birth control ads in the s and s, historian Amy Sarch comments that women appeared in medical journal ads Adult personals in yakima. literally as drawings of disembodied vaginas.
The text of theses ads, according to Sarch, served to distance the reader, typically the male physician, even further from the female body. However, even early Enovid ads present both biological and social limitations for women. The first advertisement in the CMAJ fox the new birth control pill did not explicitly present the medication as a method of contraception. Sarah Stage, Female Complaints: FDA for sale in the United States as a regulator for menstrual dysfunction inwas available in Canada fromthough not approved for use as a birth control pill until E n o v ic is Enovid.
E no v id is as m fe as ttic suddenly discovered slate o f pregnancy. Random House,Coney Irvine single moms sex chat The text explains that the drug Enovid normalizes, enhances or suspends procreative potential, Coney Irvine single moms sex chat freeing women from the aberration and demands o f their cycle. The chains that bind Andromeda represent the reproductive cycle - a reproductive cycle that ties her down and acts as punishment. The imagery and related text in the advertisement present menstruation as negative.
The woman is trapped by her menses, and is presumably waiting to be rescued by a male hero, perhaps the physician who is needed to prescribe the medication. Hamilton i am seeking also represents menstruation as a longstanding female problem that in the past, even the ancient past, shackled her. The advertisement does not necessarily give physicians an Married ladies want hot sex Virginia Beach Virginia negative Coney Irvine single moms sex chat of women.
While the Enovid imagery and text may seem to be liberating for women, it ultimately has negative connotations. Neither were articles on the birth control pill, even though the pill was developed in the s. However, this section of the Criminal Code was not repealed untillong after birth control pills were advertised and written about in the CMAJ.Yuma Sex For Woman
While birth control remained illegal in the Chaf century, this did not mean that birth control information was Coneu circulated. In factory owner A. Nurses working for the PIB distributed birth control pamphlets to the working class.
In PIB nurse Dorothea Palmer was charged under the criminal code with distributing birth control information. Physicians prescribing the pill to Canadian women in the s also argued that they too were working in the best interests of the public. Few people were ever convicted under this section of the Criminal Code.
There was, however, one exception; in Harold Fine, a Toronto pharmacist, was tried and convicted of advertising condoms as contraceptives and subsequently McLaren, The Bedroom and the State, Many Canadian Coney Irvine single moms sex chat fitted and dispensed diaphragms and spermicidal jelly Irfine the invention of the pill; however, according to a CM4J article, no physicians were ever convicted.
Growing interest in the birth control pill meant that G. A History o f Contraception: From Antiquity to the Present Day Oxford: Basil Blackwell,singls Arguably the birth singe pill was novel and differed from other experimental drugs because it was the first prescription medication produced and prescribed for a healthy consumer in the modem era.
Here suddenly was Irrvine pill to be used to treat a healthy person and for long term use. Carole McCann, a historian o f birth control Coney Irvine single moms sex chat the United States, notes that some obstetricians in the early twentieth century argued that while pregnancy and childbirth were natural processes, the potential for pathology Coney Irvine single moms sex chat ever present.
While the general public was not concerned with the potential side effects of the pill until the late s, physicians expressed some hesitancy about the new contraception in the early s, in part because of the occvirrence of limb malformations associated with the use of thalidomide during pregnancy.
Thalidomide Andre Woman seeking sex tonight Tipton Indiana, Devices and Desires: Tone, Devices and Desires, McCann, Birth Control Politics, Assumed non-toxic, with no side effects, thalidomide was considered safe for pregnant women.
Shortly after its release in the Canadian market, the Ifvine effects of thalidomide became known to Canadian physicians. By December, the two companies sent out letters to Canadian physicians warning against prescribing the drug to pregnant and pre-menopausal women because of the occurrence of congenital defects.
Viking Press,2. War Amputation o f Canada, The reports on thalidomide children vary. The CMAJ article on thalidomide is based on the observation o f thalidomide babies74 o f whom were alive at the Cnoey the article was published. The two later sources, the last outlining public policy measures, most Irvkne only include those thalidomide children who survived. Also, as all sources note, symptoms o f thalidomide poisoning vary from physical deformity to internal problems, and can be difScuh to properly diagnose.
A CM4J article warned that slngle situation similar to the thalidomide disaster could occur and that physicians needed to be aware of, and diligently Redwood NY bi horny wives, malformations as a consequence of birth control pill usage. In editorials and letters to the journal possible links Figure 3 xingle - CMAJ March 12 15 between the pill and headaches.
Vascular Headaches and Coney Irvine single moms sex chat Contraceptives. Birth control pill manufacturing in the early s was a million dollar industry for pharmaceutical companies.
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